Researchers at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity have discovered unique mechanisms that control different types of immune cells, and by targeting these mechanisms they can selectively eliminate ‘problem cells’. , discovered that it is possible to rebuild the skin’s immune environment. Their findings could lead to new treatments for autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and vitiligo.
Their new research science In an article titled “Diverse molecular networks program functionally distinct CD8+ skin-resident memory T cells”
“Skin-resident CD8+ T cells include different interferon-gamma-producing cells. [tissue-resident memory T type 1 (TRM1)] and interleukin 17 (IL-17) production (TR.M.17) subsets that differentially contribute to the immune response,” the researchers wrote. “However, it is unclear whether these populations use common mechanisms to establish tissue residency. In this study, T.R.M.1 and TR.M.17 cells migrate in divergent trajectories to acquire tissue residency within the skin. ”
Dr Simone Park, from the University of Melbourne, an honorary research fellow and former postdoctoral fellow in the Mackay lab at the Doherty Institute, and lead author of the study, said the research explores the unique ways in which different types of human bodies are controlled. He said it was the first time the element was explained. Skin TRM cells in animal models provide precise targets for potential therapeutic strategies.
“The specialized immune cells in our skin are diverse. Many are essential for preventing infections and cancer, while others play a major role in mediating autoimmunity,” Park says.
“We discovered important differences in how different types of skin T cells are regulated, which now allows us to precisely edit the skin’s immune environment in a targeted way. Ta.”
Dr Susan Crist from the University of Melbourne, a senior research fellow in the McKay lab at the Doherty Institute and co-lead author of the study, will explore how these findings can advance efforts to treat skin diseases. explained.
“Most autoimmune therapies treat the symptoms of the disease rather than addressing the cause of the disease. Traditional treatments for skin diseases often affect all immune cells indiscriminately. , which means it has the potential to wipe out our protective T cells,” Crist said.
“Until now, we didn’t know how to distinguish ‘bad’ T cells in the skin from the protective ‘good’ T cells. Through this research, we discovered a new molecule that can selectively eliminate disease-causing T cells in the skin. ”
The study’s lead author, Professor Laura McKay from the University of Melbourne, explained that these findings could pave the way to more precise and long-term treatments for skin diseases.
“Skin diseases such as psoriasis and vitiligo are difficult to treat long-term. The T cells that cause the disease are difficult to eliminate, so patients often require lifelong treatment. Our approach “It has the potential to revolutionize the way skin diseases are treated in the United States and significantly improve outcomes for people dealing with difficult skin conditions,” said McKay.
This study demonstrated successful depletion of specific skin T cells in an animal model, and further studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of these strategies in human subjects. Park hopes this research will spur the development of new treatments for skin diseases.
“These findings bring us one step closer to developing new drugs that permanently prevent autoimmune skin diseases without compromising immune defenses,” Park said.